Arctic Omega Krill™ contains K•REAL® krill oil. Krill oil’s uniqueness lies in its composition. Unlike fish oil, krill oil is rich in phospholipids. Research suggests that this special composition allows the omega-3s to be better absorbed into red blood cells and by target organs—such as the heart, brain, and liver—compared to fish oil. K•Real krill oil is produced using a multi-stage oil (MSO ®) extraction process that preserves the natural nutrient profile of krill oil while removing spoilage components, such as trimethylamine, total volatile nitrogen, and other oxidative elements and derivatives. The purity of K-Real combined with its phospholipid composition prevents the “fishy burps” associated with some fish oils.*
Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) Krill, a coldwater marine crustacean, is a rich source of omega-3 EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Krill is considered to be stable and relatively resistant to oxidation, unlike other sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Krill’s stability is attributed to its antioxidant content, which includes vitamin E and astaxanthin. K•Real krill oil is extracted from krill biomass supplied only from vessels and facilities monitored by members of the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR), and Arctic Omega Krill is five-star IKOS (International Krill Oil Standards) certified, which ensures the highest quality.
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
EPA and DHA, conditionally essential omega-3 fatty acids, have been extensively studied for their positive effects on cardiovascular health, cognitive integrity, immune function, and the body’s production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. [2,3]Research suggests that serum levels of EPA and DHA are inversely associated with cardiovascular health. In this regard, it is appropriate to note that the omega-3 index (a measurement of EPA and DHA in erythrocyte membranes) has become recognized as a biomarker of cardiovascular health.*[4,5]
Considered the building blocks of healthy cells, phospholipids help maintain cell membrane fluidity and function. The phospholipid form of EPA and DHA is easily recognized, integrated, and utilized by the body’s cells. The major phospholipid in Arctic Omega Krill is phosphatidylcholine, which is highly concentrated in the heart, brain, liver, and kidneys.*
Both animal and clinical research suggest that astaxanthin, a red-orange member of the carotenoid family, supports antioxidant mechanisms and helps promote a healthy cytokine balance in the body.Krill is recognized as a rich source of astaxanthin, which not only provides health benefits, but also serves to stabilize the krill oil.*[1,8]
Krill Oil Research
In addition to a plethora of animal studies, krill oil has been used in several human clinical trials, and research consistently suggests that it has higher bioavailability than fish oil, supports cardiovascular health, and positively influences the production of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. 8-14] For instance, a double-blind crossover trial compared uptake of EPA/DHA from krill (in phospholipid form) to uptake of two forms of fish oil (ethyl esters and reesterified triacylglycerides). Results suggested that krill oil had superior bioavailability and promoted the highest incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma phospholipids. 
A randomized, double-blind, parallel-arm trial of 76 subjects indicated that 2 g/day of krill oil significantly increased plasma EPA and DHA levels and was well-tolerated.*
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, the effects of krill oil (3g/d) on plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profile was studied in healthy volunteers. Results indicated that K•Real krill oil more effectively increased plasma and red blood cell EPA and DHA concentrations, decreased the total n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio, and increased the omega-3 index compared to fish oil. These findings suggest that the bioavailability of krill oil omega-3 PUFA might be more pronounced than that of fish oil, which is likely due to the structural differences between these two marine oils. Krill oil was well tolerated with no adverse events.*
In a randomized, double-blind controlled crossover trial involving 47 participants, krill oil supplementation was shown to support cardiovascular health by improving endothelial function and supporting healthy blood lipid metabolism. Participants presented improved endothelial function after taking krill oil daily for four weeks compared to participants taking olive oil. During the additional 17-week supplementation period, 34 of the participants showed a statistically significant improvement in endothelial function and lipid metabolism when compared with their respective baseline measures.*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.
- Tou JC, Jaczynski J, Chen YC. Krill for human consumption: nutritional value and potential health benefits. Nutr Rev. 2007 Feb;65(2):63-77. [PMID: 17345959]
- Linus Pauling Institute. http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/othernuts/ omega3fa/#metabolism. Accessed April 20, 2012.
- DHA, EPA, Omega-3 Institute: The Source for Objective Science-based DHA/ EPA Omega-3 Information. http://www.dhaomega3.org/Updates-On-Omega-3- Research. Accessed October 6, 2015.
- Pottala JV, Garg S, Cohen BE, et al. Blood eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids predict all-cause mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease: the Heart and Soul study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2010 Jul;3(4):406-12. [PMID: 20551373]
- Harris WS. The omega-3 index as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Jun;87(6):1997S-2002S. [PMID: 18541601]
- Phosphatidylcholine. Natural Standard Database. http://naturalstandard.com/ databases/herbssupplements/phosphatidylcholine.asp. Accessed April 16, 2012.
- Hussein G, Sankawa U, Goto et al. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. J Nat Prod. 2006 Mar;69(3):443-9. Review. [PMID: 16562856]
- Kidd PM. Omega-3 DHA and EPA for cognition, behavior, and mood: clinical findings and structural-functional synergies with cell membrane phospholipids. Altern Med Rev. 2007 Sep;12(3):207-27. [PMID: 18072818]
- Konagai C, Yanagimoto K, Hayamizu K, et al. Effects of krill oil containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid form on human brain function: a randomized controlled trial in healthy elderly volunteers. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:1247-57. [PMID: 24098072]
- Maki KC, Reeves MS, Farmer M, et al. Krill oil supplementation increases plasma concentrations of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids in overweight and obese men and women. Nutr Res. 2009 Sep;29(9):609-15. [PMID: 19854375]
- Banni S, Carta G, Murru E, et al. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2011 Jan 30;8(1):7. [PMID: 21276269]
- Ulven SM, Holven KB. Comparison of bioavailability of krill oil versus fish oil and health effect. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2015 Aug 28;11:511-24. [PMID: 26357480]
- Schuchardt JP, Schneider I, Meyer H, et al. Incorporation of EPA and DHA into plasma phospholipids in response to different omega-3 fatty acid formulations—a comparative bioavailability study of fish oil vs. krill oil. Lipids Health Dis. 2011 Aug 22;10:145. [PMID: 21854650]
- Ramprasath VR, Eyal I, Zchut S, et al. Enhanced increase of omega-3 index in healthy individuals with response to 4-week n-3 fatty acid supplementation from krill oil versus fish oil. Lipids Health Dis. 2013 Dec 5;12:178. [PMID: 24304605]
- Lobraico JM, DiLello LC, Butler AD, et al. Effects of krill oil on endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in participants with type 2 diabetes, a randomized controlled trial. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2015 Oct 14;3(1):e000107. [PMID: 26504524]